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If you are missing some feature in GPXSee, you may also use the tracker to request it. GPXSee supports a large variety of online maps as well as various offline map formats. What is GPXSee?
Support for POI files. Multiple tracks in one view. Full-screen mode. Free software GPLv3 open-source license. Maps GPXSee supports most tile server based online maps out there, but the list of map definitions distributed with the official packages is limited to a small set of well known global map services. The community around the project grew and in as Sean stopped racing competively he handed over leadership of the project to Mark Liversedge.
Since then, a large and global community has contributed additional code and other support. Wherever possible we choose to use published science. Science that has been developed with the academic rigour demanded by the scientific method; evidence based, peer-reviewed and original.
This means we are able to provide the best analysis available, but at the cost of a steep learning curve for new users. So below, we try to introduce some of the most important concepts, why they are important and how they might help you to improve. How hard can you go, in watts, for half an hour is going to be very different to how hard you can go for say, 20 seconds. Then thinking about how hard you can go for a very long time will be different again.
When it comes to reviewing and tracking changes in your performance and planning future workouts you quickly realise how useful it is to have a good understanding of your own limits. CP, on the other hand, is that intensity or power output where you are uncomfortable but stable, akin to your TT pace.
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You know that if you try to go any harder you are gonna blow up pretty quickly. This formula is pretty reliable for durations between 2 minutes and an hour or so, but less reliable for shorter and longer durations. So, over the last 50 years, variations of these models have been developed to address this, and it still continues to be a topic of great scientific interest. We have implemented some of these models so you can get power estimates to predict and review your training and racing.
We use complex sources of overlapping energy when we exercise. In the first 10 seconds or so of high output work we draw upon energy stored within the muscles that have immediate availability — so we can sprint all out for seconds without drawing breath and at very high work rates. Interestingly, after about 3 minutes of total rest these stores are largely replenished.
So for the next 50 seconds or so after those phosphates are depleted we primarily get our energy from glycolysis and still without drawing breath. This is the conversion of glucose into lactate.
It takes us about 1 hr to recover and remove all the lactate produced, but most of it is gone after about 10 minutes — and we can speed up this clearance through light exercise — which is why a warm-down is a good idea after intense exercise. But now, sadly, after that all-out minute we are going to have to draw breath, because we need the oxygen to power the aerobic energy systems. First up we get aerobic glycolysis, this is converting glucose into pyruvate by burning it with oxygen in a really complicated 10 stage cycle.
The conversion rate is limited by the amount of oxygen the lungs can absorb VO2max and the available fuels. Once all the glucose is gone, we will bonk, which is why gels and powders are high in easily digested glucose — to refuel this process. Lastly, from about minutes we start to rely upon lipolysis that utilises an almost limitless source of energy; fat and water. So stay hydrated! Our Extended Power Duration Model extracts the likely contribution of these energy systems to predict the energy production or watts per second.
It is likely that in the next years current research will help to explain muscular, neural and psychological fatigue or constraints. These in turn can be used to refine our models. Our legs contain lots of different muscle groups; the quadriceps, hamstrings, calves etc.
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These muscle groups work together when we walk, run, kick and jump. Each muscle group in turn is comprised of a large number of motor units MU that in turn contain a motor neuron and a collection of muscle fibres. Our brain triggers a muscle group into action by recruiting as many of its motor units as needed to meet the power we want.
It does this by firing the motor neurons that sends an electrical pulse to the muscle fibres causing them to contract. Slow-twitch fibres contain a high number of mitochondria; often referred to as cellular power-plants. They 'generate' energy on demand in that complex step process mentioned above its actually called The Krebs Cycle.
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In contrast, fast-twitch muscles contain far fewer mitochondria and instead have greater stores of glycogen and the enzymes needed to to produce energy without oxygen. As a result, slow-twitch muscles are fuelled primarily from fat at endurance intensities, but will utilise glycogen at tempo and higher intensities. With the right kind of training it is possible to 'convert' type IIa to type I which improves aerobic endurance performance but at the cost of a loss of some strength. This is typically achieved through lots of hours riding at a lower intensity, below LT1.
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Explosive and high intensity workouts will typically signal greater type II muscle fibre growth. So the worst thing for a sprinter to do is ride a 3 week multi-stage race like the Tour de France!https://blaccomlicoo.ml
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As we increase the force we want to generate our brains will recruit more and more of the motor units to meet the demand. As the demand gets higher we reach a point where all motor units available will be firing.
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This peripheral fatigue occurs much earlier for fast-twitch than slow-twitch muscles. So our brain will always recruit from slow-twitch before fast-twitch muscles to meet demand — so the fast twitchers are saved for when we really need them. Lactate is produced when we burn glucose; aerobically and anaerobically. During intense exercise it is mostly produced by the fast-twitch muscles that utilise glycogen. However, it is not a waste product as was widely believed in the past; it inhibits fat oxidation and also glucose utilisation within our muscle cells — it even reduces muscle shortening and thus peak power.
It is a 'brake' to stop us going too hard, helping us to pace for the long run. But of course, we might not want that to happen if we're winding it up for the finish straight! Further, the mitochondria within our slow-twitch fibres and in fact most of our bodily organs can utilise lactate to create glucose. So our body creates it to regulate our metabolism, but will also use it for fuel, either when we settle down a bit or by "shuttling" it in the bloodstream from the active leg skeletal muscles to the smooth muscles in our heart and lungs. Lactate also causes an increase in PGC-1a that results in increased mitochondria biogenesis we can also increase PGC-1a signalling and associated mitochondria biogenesis by riding when fasted.
This is an exciting area of development that is beginning to suggest that lactate has significant beneficial effects rather than being detrimental. Lactate is always produced even at lower intensities of exercise. Initially our blood flow will clear lactate away as it is produced to the liver, heart, kidneys where it is slowly converted and stored as fuel for re-use.
Additionally whilst we are working at these lower intensities some of the lactate produced is converted back into glucose within the muscles themselves which also helps to clear lactate when we rest or "lift off the gas for a moment". The reason this only occurs at lower intensity is because it is the slow-twitch muscle fibres that contain a transporter called MCT-1 that controls lactate re-use within the fibre mitochondria.
And slow-twitch muscles will all be busy when we exercise at higher intensities. As we work a little harder lactate will be created a bit faster, but at the same time blood flow increases our heartrate goes up so we keep clearing it. At this point we will feel that we are working, but no more than a tempo pace. As we continue to go harder, blood lactate accumulation will increase and so will blood flow as our heart rate rises. Performance at the LT1 point has been shown to be an excellent predictor of performance in endurance races like the marathon or a cycle race lasting two or more hours.
From here if we go harder then lactate will build up much faster and we will start to feel a heavy burning sensation in our legs. Performance at the LTP has been shown to be a good predictor of performance in shorter events like the 10KM or a cycling 40km TT, with most athletes able to hold power at the LTP for between 45 and 65 minutes. It is not such a good predictor of performance in events of a longer duration — hence CP and FTP are not good indicators of endurance performance but as they change it will indicate if the lactate curve is shifting to the left or the right.
So, if we can shift the blood lactate curve to the right we can exercise harder for longer at the same level of perceived effort. Or as Greg Lemond famously once said 'It doesn't get easier, you just go faster' — we will still hit the LTP, just at a higher power output. In order to do this we need to train our bodies to to burn less glucose for fuel, get better at shuttling pyruvate into muscle cells before resorting to producing lactate, and once we have lactate we need to get better at clearing it away or reusing it for fuel.
So, increasing the volume and density of mitochondria within the slow-twitch fibres will give us a much greater capacity to re-use pyruvate and less lactate will be produced in the first place. Secondly, these mitochondria will also help in clearing and reusing lactate. So, training interventions that increase the volume and density of slow-twitch fibres and mitochondria will shift that curve to the right and improve endurance performance.
Typically this is the purpose of 'long slow distance' where we ride below LT1 at an 'endurance pace' for many hours. It seems such a simple concept. VO2max is the maximum amount of oxygen your body can use during intense exercise, measured in millilitres per kg of weight per minute. To determine your VO2max you need some expensive lab equipment that measures gas exchange; oxygen in and carbon dioxide out.
This is typically measured via a ramp test. It is considered to be the best indicator of an athlete's cardiovascular fitness and a good predictor of their aerobic performance. The more oxygen you can use during intense exercise, the more 'fuel' you burn and the greater energy you produce. Your VO2max is largely determined through genetics; you won't become Greg Lemond But VO2max can be improved with the right sort of training interventions and weight management and it remains the best way of tracking improvements in aerobic fitness as well as comparing athletes and determining their likely potential.
For those that don't own a gas exhange analyzer, HR may be an alternative way of tracking changes.